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About the book
Material and energy

Fluid-flow theory
Fluid-flow applications
Heat-transfer theory

separation processes


Size reduction
Index to Figures
Index to Examples
Useful links
Feedback (email link)


The Web Edition

Process engineering is a major contributor to food technology, and provides important and useful tools for the food technologist to apply in designing, developing and controlling food processes. Process engineering principles are the basis for food processing, but only some of them are important and commonly encountered in the food industry. This book aims to select these important principles and show how they can be quantitatively applied in the food industry. It explains, develops and illustrates them at a level of understanding which covers most of the needs of the food technologist in industry and of the student working to become one. It can also be used as an introduction to food engineering.

When this book was first published in 1966, there were almost no books available in food process engineering. This book met an extensive need at its modest standard and cost. It was widely distributed and used, all over the world. Subsequently other textbooks have emerged and the available literature and data have grown enormously. In particular there are excellent books covering advanced food engineering and also specialist areas of food processing.

However there still seems to be a need for an introductory, less specialised book at an accessible level. With the hard copy book in English having been out of print for some time, it seemed appropriate to make the book widely available through a free Web site.

So what is largely the text of the 2nd Edition with corrections and only minor changes has been converted to a user-friendly computer-based learning source on the World Wide Web. Here it will be freely available for consultation or copying, indeed for any use save commercial reproduction. It is contributed as a service to the food industry. It can be used not only as an interactive learning text for the student, but also as a quick reference for people in industry who from time to time have a specific need for a method of calculation. The contents are interlinked so that specific information, examples and figures can easily be found.

The book is intended to introduce technological ideas and engineering concepts, and to illustrate their use. Data, including properties and charts, are provided, but for definitive design details may need to be independently checked to ensure requisite precision. Every effort has been made to provide clear explanations and to avoid errors, but errors may occur including in the translation to the Web. Also greater precision and clarity may well be achievable. So feedback from users will be most welcome, and should be directed to The Editor.

Obviously this book is the product of much more than just the efforts of the author whose name appears on the title. The ideas developed have been built up over the years by a multitude of researchers, inventors, scientists, engineers and technologists, far too numerous to list. Some have been identified in the text and references, and some of these have made individual contributions; the material they made available has provided the essence of the book, the facts and figures and diagrams. It is hoped that they have been accurately quoted and nowhere misinterpreted.

Pergamon Press first published the book giving it clear layout and wide distribution at a reasonable price. A number of colleagues helped with improvements for the second edition. More extensive acknowledgement of these contributors has been made in the Prefaces and elsewhere in the earlier editions. The thanks and gratitude of the author to all who have provided material remain undiminished. Prof. Buncha Ooraikul and Prof. Paul Jelen encouraged putting it onto the Web, as it was still being used by their students.

NZIFST - New Zealand Institute of Food Science and TechnologyEditions even for the Web do not come without cost. So particular mention for this Web edition must be made of the New Zealand Institute of Food Science and Technology which contributed finance and hosting, and of Chris Newey who converted it to the new form. Chris found that translation of printed text carrying many tables, equations, superscripts and subscripts into Web format moved well beyond the capacity of the optical character recognition, and it gave him a great deal of work before final emergence in the convenient html and swf forms. I am very grateful to him for his extensive and very worthwhile contribution.

As in the earlier editions, even more so in this, appearance would never have occurred without the cheerful, unstinting, and technically invaluable help of my wife Mary. We will all be rewarded by this site being both useful, and well and widely used.

Richard L.Earle
Palmerston North, New Zealand. 2003

About the Author

Richard L. EarleR. L. Earle, Emeritus Professor, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Dick Earle trained as a chemical engineer, and in research in food technology, before entering the New Zealand meat industry. His interests were particularly in refrigeration and energy usage, heat transfer and freezing, and byproduct and waste processing.

Dick joined Massey University in 1965, initially in food technology, and later founding the biotechnology discipline, which had special interests in the processing of biologically-based materials.

He has published several books jointly with his wife (Dr) Mary Earle on product development and reaction technology, and many technical papers and reports. He is a Distinguished Fellow of the Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand (IPENZ). Dick and Mary Earle have recently established a scholarship for the support and encouragement of postgraduate research into aspects of technology in New Zealand universities.

The Print Editions

Unit operations in food processing - 2nd edThis book is now out of print. It was originally published by Pergamon Press:

First edition 1966
Second edition 1983

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
Earle, R. L.
Unit operations in food processing - 2nd ed. - (Pergamon Commonwealth and International Library)
1. Food industry and trade - Quality control
I. Title
664 '.07        TP372.5

ISBN 0-08-025537-X Hardcover
ISBN 0-08-025536-1 Flexicover


Copyright © 1983-2004 R. L. Earle. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright remains with the author, however, the author gives permission to The New Zealand Institute of Food Science & Technology (Inc.) (NZIFST) for free use and display of this material on the internet, and permission to all site visitors for the free use and copying of all or part of the text for non-commercial purposes, subject to acknowledgement of the source (which is, unless otherwise indicated):

Unit Operations in Food Processing, Web Edition, 2004.
Publisher: The New Zealand Institute of Food Science & Technology (Inc.)
Authors: R.L. Earle with M.D. Earle.


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Unit Operations in Food Processing. Copyright © 1983, R. L. Earle. :: Published by NZIFST (Inc.)
NZIFST - The New Zealand Institute of Food Science & Technology