CHAPTER 3 FLUID FLOW THEORY

Introduction Fluid staticsfluid pressureabsolute pressures gauge pressures head Fluid dynamics Mass balancecontinuity equation Energy balance Potential energy Kinetic energy Pressure energy Friction loss Mechanical energy Other effects Bernouilli's equationflow from a nozzle Viscosityshear forcesviscous forces Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluidspower law equation Streamline and turbulent flowdimensionless ratios Reynolds number Energy losses in flow Friction in PipesFanning equationHagen Poiseuille equation Blasius equationpipe roughnessMoody graph Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings Pressure Drop through Equipment Equivalent Lengths of Pipe Compressibility Effects for Gases Calculation of Pressure Drops in Flow Systems Summary Problems Examples in this Chapter: 3.1. Total pressure in a tank of peanut oil 3.2. Head of Water 3.3. Head of mercury 3.4. Velocities of flow 3.5. Pressure in a pipe 3.6. Flow rate of olive oil 3.7. Mass flow rate from a tank 3.8. Pump horsepower 3.9. Flow of milk in a pipe 3.10. Pressure drop in a pipe Figures in this Chapter: 3.1. Pressure in a fluid 3.2. Pressure conversions 3.3. Mass and energy balance in fluid flow 3.4. Flow from a nozzle. 3.5. Viscous forces in a fluid. 3.6. Shear stress/shear rate relationships in liquids. 3.7. Energy balance over a length of pipe. 3.8 Friction factors in pipe flow.